What is the wildfire or a bushfire means? A wildfire is an unwanted fire which cannot be controlled in a combustible vegetative area. According to the type of plants (vegetation) present the wildfire can be classified as bushfire (occurred in Australia), forest fire (occurred in the Amazon rainforest), dessert fire etc. It might be very destructive as when it starts to burn it cause severe damage for the physical properties, the life of endemic species of plants and animals either human life can be taken.
How does a wildfire occur? Wildfire can begin either naturally by a lightning strike. Fire starts very small and grows rapidly or artificially (by human interruption), fire mainly cause due to ignored campfires, negligently discarded cigarettes, malfunctioning equipment in use and likewise. A wildfire can occur commonly in forested areas like United States, Canada, Australia, Western Cape of South Africa, Brazil and etc.
In the year 2019 there two major wildfires were recorded;
- The Amazon rainforest fire
- The Australian bushfire
The Amazon rainforest
What is a rainforest? The rainfall which gets per annum is continuous and really high, and therefore that is why those forests are basically known as rainforests. It is a home for more than 30 million of flora and fauna (plants and animals).
What you should know about the Amazon rainforest? The Amazon rainforest is the world’s largest tropical rainforest, and the Amazon which is known as the second longest river is also situated here. About 1/5 of the plants and animals and about 1/10 of the mammal species can be found. There are about 390 billion individual trees and they were been divided into about 16,000 species. It is covering an area of approximately 5,500,000 km2. The forest runs through 60% of Brazil, 13% of Peru, 10% of Colombia, and minor amounts of Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana in South America. There are thousands of endemic species found in this rainforest. Like; jaguars, sloths, river dolphins, macaws, anacondas, glass frogs, poison dart frogs etc.
Amazon rainforest fire
Since the month of January 2019, the rainforest fire began and then it spreads until October 2019, but small fires can be seen currently too. Mostly Amazon forest fires happen during the dry season between July to October. They cause naturally by lightning strikes but this time it wasn’t a natural part of the Amazon’s ecosystem. Many of the fires were noticed that were lit by farmers. Agricultural fires were being lit around the forest edges and it is said that it might be the main reason for the fire to get wild. Mainly because of the climatic change, global warming, unusual longer dry season and the rising of the average temperature around the world might be a cause to spread the fire. It already burned out approximately 9,060km2. As in the reports of IPNE [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research)] which says (in August 29, 2019) there were more than 80,000 fires across Brazil. About 16,000 active fire spots had been detected within Amazon forest, but after a month it’s almost more than 46,000 fires. The emission of the fire threatened the biodiversity, and also the indigenous tribes that live within the forest. The unexpected weather arrangement shifted the smoke thousands and thousands of kilometres to the south west toward the Atlantic coastline.
With the deforestation and from the destruction from the fire caused the beautiful rainforest to loss more than 20%. About 2.3 million animals died.
What is special about the Australian forests or vegetation? 16% of the Australia’s land area that means 125 million hectares is covered with significantly different forests. Australia’s Forests extend across northern tropical regions, east coast subtropical regions, and warm and cool temperate zones in the south-east. Tropical or subtropical rainforests can be found in northern and eastern in wet coastal areas of Australia. Rainforests with warm temperature are In New South Wales and Victoria provinces, and cool-temperate rainforests are found in Victoria and Tasmania and in small areas at high altitude in New South Wales and Queensland. There endemic species in the Australian forests too. Such as; wombat, koala, bandicoot, platypus, echidna, kangaroo etc.
How does the Australian bushfire occur? The bush fire or the wild fire began in the month of June 2019. Regions which affected were;
- New south wales
- South Australia
- Western Australia
- Australian Capital Territory
- Northern Territory
Since then approximately about 18.6 hectares burned, about 10,000 building including houses and other buildings got destroyed and about 34 people have been killed. The main problem is the fire has killed about one billion animals and most of endangered species might drive to extinction. It is said that the fire was started by an accident or an alleged arson or a lightning strike. But the drought, the global warming, the changes in the temperature might increase the fire rapidly. Thousands of fires have been or still are burning in the south-eastern part of the country. The smoke had moved about 11,000km across Chile and Argentina through the South Pacific Ocean. Very recently an air tanker, two helicopters and two fire trucks have crashed during firefighting operations and caused number of deaths. The rain across most of south-east Australia had extinguished a third of the fires but there is small amount of fires which that are still existing.
Both the forests caught fire mainly because of the deforestation done by the farmers and fires are also done by them. More than 20% of the Amazon rainforest and the Australian forest burnt due to their negligence. Billions and billions of innocent animals died and the beauty of the world get ruined mainly because of the present mankind. The rate of oxygen that left for all of us to breath is reducing very fast and the rate of carbon dioxide is raising extremely fast. If these destructions won’t stop in the near future it’ll be a great disaster for all the living species in the world.